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progress} > /(depth).
The feeling of success is very important, since this is the positive reinforcer which makes the loop a
positive one. If this is not instituted, the sufferer is inclined to be forever thinking, "I am stupid! Fancy
being scared of the water, at my age!" So that instead of being pleased at being able to sit in the water
without anxiety, he or she is feeling bad because no one else has to do that. They therefore provide
themselves with a negative reinforcer, and so enter a negative loop which soon discourages them from
I have known cases of individuals who have been "treated" for their phobias by psychologists who seem
to have learned the process of progressive desensitisation by rote, with no understanding of the nature of
the loop they are supposed to be instituting. They have neglected the central importance of the reinforcer,
with the result that each step has been taken with increasing reluctance, and the "cure" failed.
http://easyweb.easynet.co.uk/~dylanwad/morganic/ph_chap15.htm (7 of 12) [19/06/2000 8:30:01 PM]
Principles of Hypnosis (15). Using life factors to reinforce changes made in hypnosis
A similar method may be used to eliminate a phobia in the context of Hypnotherapy. The main difference
is that the Client is usually taken through the stages by means of an enhanced visualisation rather than in
reality. This has the advantage that there is little problem of self-consciousness - as there often is at the
real pool. Various Hypnotic techniques can also be used to instill confidence and, which is often of great
importance, to deal with memories of some early disaster which may have initiated the phobia. But it
remains of importance to ensure that each small improvement results in great satisfaction when the
Subject tries things out in real life. Remember: Life must provide the Reinforcer. Consequently we need
to ensure that satisfaction will be felt with each step of progress.
After these examples it should be possible to see the principle involved fairly clearly. The good
Hypnotherapist will always be trying to arrange that any change made in the consulting room will be
amplified or reinforced by the Client's environment: "Life must provide the Reinforcer."
This attention to environment is what is sometimes denoted by the adjective "holistic", but it should be
realised that the customary antithesis between "holistic" and "analytic" does not hold in the context of the
present theory of Hypnotherapy, which clearly incorporates a great deal of analysis of the systems
involved, but does not limit itself to internal systems, but rather includes external ones in the
environment as well. Consequently it may also be termed "holistic".
This attention to arranging for reinforcement by the environment highlights a certain important ethical
and professional point. We have noted that many elementary Hypnotic phenomena are evoked by means
of reinforcement by the Hypnotist. If things go beyond that, and deeper and more personal changes are
reinforced by the personality of the Hypnotherapist, then we have danger of the Client becoming almost
addicted to the Hypnotherapist. If the only place the changes are reinforced are in the Hypnotherapist's
office, then the Client becomes subtly conditioned to return again and again.
One advantage of the "Morganic" approach is that it forces us to consider relevant external systems, and
the ways in which they affect the problem. We are forced to ask what the resultants of changes are. We
are forced to look for negative feedback from the environment which could actively eliminate an
improvement; we are forced to look for aspects of the environment which will provide positive feedback
to change. We cannot restrict ourselves to the cosy little world of { |Therapist > |Client > |Therapist}.
For an equivalent analogy consider again the management consultant who restricts himself to analysing
the behaviour of a business with no reference to the market in which it operates! Any businessman
should see how futile this can be. An organisational structure which works excellently in one market [ Pobierz całość w formacie PDF ]


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