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[Footnote 236: E.g. Sat. Brah. v. 4. 4. 13. "He thus encloses the Vaisya and Sudra on both sides by the
priesthood and nobility and makes them submissive."]
[Footnote 237: See Sankhayana Aranyaka. Trans. Keith, pp. viii-xi, 78 85. Also Aitareya Aran. book v.]
[Footnote 238: Cf. the ritual for the Horse sacrifice. ['Sat]. Brah, xiii. 2. 8, and Hillebrandt, Vedische Opfer., p.
[Footnote 239: Supplemented by the Kausika Sutra, which, whatever its age may be, has preserved a record of
very ancient usages.]
[Footnote 240: E.g. I. 10. This hymn, like many others, seems to combine several moral and intellectual
stages, the level at which the combination was possible not being very high. On the one hand Varuna is the
Lord of Law and of Truth who punishes moral offences with dropsy. On the other, the sorcerer "releases" the
patient from Varuna by charms, without imposing any moral penance, and offers the god a thousand other
men, provided that this particular victim is released.]
[Footnote 241: E.g. VII. 116, VI. 105, VI. 83.]
[Footnote 242: E.g. V. 7, XI. 9.]
[Footnote 243: E.g. V. 4, XIX. 39, IV. 37, II. 8, XIX. 34, VIII. 7.]
[Footnote 244: A. V XI. 6.]
[Footnote 245: See, for instance, Du Bose, The Dragon, Image and Demon, 1887, pp. 320-344.]
[Footnote 246: Atanatiya and Mahasamaya. Dig. Nik. XX. and XXXII.]
[Footnote 247: See Crooke's Popular Religion of Northern India, vol. II. chap. ii.]
[Footnote 248: In the Brahma-Jala and subsequent suttas of the Digha Nikaya.]
[Footnote 249: See Rhys Davids' Dialogues of the Buddha, vol. I. p. 7, note 4, and authorities there quoted.]
Hinduism and Buddhism, Vol I.
[Footnote 250: Krishna is perhaps mentioned in the Chand. Up. III. 17. 6, but in any case not as a deity.]
[Footnote 251: See, besides the translations mentioned below, Buehler, Ueber die indische Secte der Jainas
1887; Hoernle, Metaphysics and Ethics of the Jainas 1908; and Guerinot, Essai de Bibliographie Jaina and
Repertoire d'Epigraphie Jaina; Jagmanderlal Jaini, Outlines of Jainism; Jacobi's article Jainism in E.R.E..
Much information may also be found in Mrs Stevenson's Heart of Jainism. Winternitz, Geschichte d.
Indischen Literatur, vol. II. part II. (1920) treats of Jain literature but I have not been able to see it.]
[Footnote 252: In J.R.A.S. 1917, pp. 122-130 s.v. Venkatesvara argues that Vardhamana died about 437 B.C.
and that the Niganthas of the Pitakas were followers of Parsva. His arguments deserve consideration but he
seems not to lay sufficient emphasis on the facts that (a) according to the Buddhist scriptures the Buddha and
Gosala were contemporaries, while according to the Jain scriptures Gosala and Vardhamana were
contemporaries, (b) in the Buddhist scriptures Nataputta is the representative of the Niganthas, while
according to the Jain scriptures Vardhamana was of the Nata clan.]
[Footnote 253: The atoms are either simple or compound and from their combinations are produced the four
elements, earth, wind, fire and water, and the whole material universe. For a clear statement of the modern
Jain doctrine about dharma and adharma, see Jagmanderlal Jaini, l.c. pp. 22 ff.]
[Footnote 254: Jiva, ajiva, asrava, bandha, samvara, nirjara, moksha. The principles are sometimes made nine
by the addition of punya, merit, and papa, sin.]
[Footnote 255: Paudgalikam karma. It would seem that all these ideas about Karma should be taken in a literal
and material sense. Karma, which is a specially subtle form of matter able to enter, stain and weigh down the
soul, is of eight kinds (1 and 2) jnana-and darsana-varaniya impede knowledge and faith, which the soul
naturally possesses; (3) mohaniya causes delusion; (4) vedaniya brings pleasure and pain; (5) ayushka fixes
the length of life; (6) nama furnishes individual characteristics, and (7) gotra generic; (8) antaraya hinders the
development of good qualities.]
[Footnote 256: Kevalam also called Jnana, moksha, nirvana. The nirvana of the Jains is clearly not
incompatible with the continuance of intelligence and knowledge.]
[Footnote 257: Uttaradhyayana XXXVI. 64-68 in S.B.E. XLV. pp. 212-213.]
[Footnote 258: S.B.E. XLV. p. xxvii. Bhandarkar Report for 1883-4, pp. 95 ff.]
[Footnote 259: Somewhat similar seems to be the relation of Jainism to the Vaiseshika philosophy. It accepted [ Pobierz całość w formacie PDF ]


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